From the results presented it can be concluded that the M-0 program can calculate
the capacity of the specimens. The differential curves were typically not in good
agreement with the displacement curves with the exception of specimen 1. On the other
hand the theoretical curves were typically in better agreement with the displacement
curves for specimens 2, 3 and 4 than with specimen 1. Because the displacement curves
were in better agreement with the theoretical curves it was assumed that they portray the
behavior of the piles better than the differential curves.
Ductility Factors
The ductility was defined as the ratio between the ultimate displacement or
curvature and the displacement or curvature at first concrete crushing spellingg). More
details about this definition can be found in chapter 4. The process of calculating the
ductility factors for specimen 1 is illustrated in Figs. 5-24 (displacement ductility factor)
and 5-25 (curvature ductility factor). P, is the load at which the concrete strain is equal to
0.003 and P, is the peak load. The same process was followed for specimens 2, 3 and 4. It
should be noted that the experimental curvature ductility factors were calculated based on
the displacement moment-curvature diagrams. The displacement and curvature ductility
factors for the four specimens are presented in Tables 5-5 and 5-6 respectively.
The experimental displacement factors for specimens 1 and 2 were 2.2 and 2.1
respectively. The displacement ductility factor of specimen 1 was approximately 5%
higher than the displacement ductility factor of specimen 2. Based on the small difference
it can be stated that both specimens have the same displacement ductility.
Specimens 3 and 4 had experimental displacement ductility factors of
approximately 1.1 and 1.9 respectively. The displacement ductility factor of specimen 4
was approximately 82% higher than the ductility factor of specimen one. The significant