Research Questions
Research question #1: Does law enforcement officer level of agreement with hate
crime classification vary across protected category?
Differences in responses across protected category. As stated previously, the main
effect of protected category was significant F(4,893) = 25.15, p < .001, lp2 = .10 (See
Table 4.1). The results of the one way ANOVA for protected category was also
significant, F(4,913) = 83.64, p < .001 (See Table 4.2). The rp2 is a measure of effect size
or strength of relationship. It is a measure of variance that is uniquely accounted for by a
particular variable:
ip2 = SSeffect / (SSeffect + SSerror)
The effect size for protected category was moderate-large lp2 = .10 (Pallant, 2005)
Table 4.2: One-way Analysis of Variance for Mean MHCS Sub-scale Scores by
Protected Category
Source df F rlp2 p
Between subjects
Category 4 83.64 .27 .001*
S within-group 913 (20.41)
error
Note: Values enclosed in parentheses represent mean square errors lp2 denotes partial eta squared. An
asterisk indicates significant results p <.01
A Levene's test of unequal variance was conducted to determine whether the assumption
of equal error variances had been violated. Levene's test for protected categories was
significant F(4,913) = 22.56, p < .001 indicating the assumption had been violated and
the error variance is not equal across groups.