higher than the normalized mean reported by Pintrich et al. (1991). The total student
engagement mean (M=52.28, SD=8.59, n=69) was 11.46 points lower than the national
mean for college seniors (Kuh et al., 2001).
Class I
For Class I (N=100, n=70), the student total cognitive style mean of the Class I
was 92.90 (SD=14.25, n=60). This indicated a slightly adaptive student group with 2.10
points lower than the general population reported by Kirton (1999). The total stress mean
for Class I was 49.82 (SD=11.96, n=77), which was 20.27 points lower than the reported
norm stress mean (Gadzella & Baloglu, 2001). For motivation, the student total
motivation mean of Class I was 29.86 (SD=3.74, n=77). That value was 0.60 points lower
than the total motivation mean reported by Pintrich et al. (1991). Student participants had
a total engagement mean of 51.58 (SD=7.72, n=76), 12.16 points lower than the national
mean for college seniors (Kuh et al, 2001).
All students
All participating students (N=993, n=716) of the nine classes were grouped
together to determine total mean scores for cognitive style, stress, motivation and
engagement. The cognitive style mean score of the total group was 93.28 (SD=15.95,
n=511), which was 1.72 points lower than the general population defined by Kirton
(1999). This indicated that overall, student participants were slightly adaptive. The total
stress mean for all students was 51.35 (SD=12.91, n=697), 18.74 points lower than the
reported norm (Gadzella & Baloglu, 2001). For total motivation, the mean was 30.81
(SD=4.04, n=706), 0.35 points higher than the norm reported by Pintrich et al. (1991).
Considering all participating students the total engagement mean was 49.58 (SD=8.20,