consisted of students' age, gender, number of similar courses taken and college
classification. Student engagement in this group was explained by the variables gender
(P=-.09), total motivation (P=.30), total stress (P=. 14) and student age (P=.09) using a
backward stepwise regression analysis. The most important independent variable
contributing to the explanation of variance of student engagement was students' total
motivation. Students in this study who have a motivation score increase of one point have
an average 0.59-point increase on the measure of student engagement while controlling
for students' gender, age and total stress. The total engagement measure consisted of a 72
point scale. The data suggests that students in this study with higher motivation scores
have higher total engagement scores while controlling for students' gender, age and total
stress. However, cognitive style gap between students and their faculty member had no
significant explanation to the variance of student engagement. The model had an adjusted
R2 of .13 meaning that 13% of the variance of student engagement among students in this
study was explained by the four independent student variables above. The model was
significant (p<.05). See Table 4-86 for the unstandardized coefficient (B), intercept
(Constant), and standardized coefficient (0).
Table 4-86. All Student Backward Stepwise Multiple Regression Explaining Student
Total Engagement (n=493)
Model
Construct B SE Beta t. Sign. F Sign.
(Constant) 21.58 5.00 4.32 .00 18.69 .00
Gender -1.48 0.70 -.09 -2.11 .04
Total motivation 0.59 0.08 .30 7.08 .00
Total stress 0.09 0.03 .14 3.31 .01
Age 0.37 0.18 .09 2.03 .01
Note. Adjusted R2=. 13