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student engagement in Class I. They include total motivation (P=.37), and number of
similar courses taken by the student (P=.27). The most important independent variable
included in this model was total motivation. Students in Class I having a total motivation
score of 31.00 points and had taken 1 to 2 similar courses have an average engagement
score of 50.49. This compares to the same students in Class I with a total motivation
score of 32.00 points having an average engagement score of 51.27. The total
engagement score range was 24 to 96. The data suggests that students in Class I with
higher motivation scores have higher total engagement scores while controlling for
number of similar courses the students have taken. However, cognitive style gap did not
offer significant explanation to student engagement in Class I. The adjusted R2 was .19
meaning 19% of the variance of student engagement in Class I can be explained by the
two independent variables. The model was statistically significant (p<.05). See Table 4-
85 for the unstandardized coefficient (B), intercept (Constant), and standardized
coefficient (0) determining student engagement of Class I.
Table 4-85. Class I Backward Stepwise Multiple Regression Explaining Student Total
Engagement (n=59)
Model
Construct B SE Beta t. Sign. F Sign.
(Constant) 24.00 7.59 3.16 .01 7.83 .01
Total motivation 0.78 0.25 .37 3.16 .01
Number of similar
courses 2.31 1.00 .27 2.31 .03
Note. Adjusted R2=. 19
All Students
All of the students who participated in this study were grouped together to explain
student engagement based on the independent variables of cognitive style gap constructs,
total stress, total motivation and student demographics. Demographic information