236
engagement of Class D. See Table 4-81 for the unstandardized coefficient (B), intercept
(Constant), and standardized coefficient (0) determining student engagement of Class D.
Table 4-81. Class D Backward Stepwise Multiple Regression Explaining Student Total
Engagement (n=66)
Model
Construct B SE Beta t. Sign. F Sign.
(Constant) 25.35 7.02 3.61 11.13 .00
Total motivation 0.73 0.22 .38 3.34 .00
Note. Adjusted R2=. 13
Class E
Backward stepwise multiple regression was employed to explain student
engagement in Class E given the independent variables of cognitive style gap constructs,
total stress, total motivation, and selected student demographic variables. After data
analysis, the best fitting model was made using three variables: number of similar courses
taken by the student (P=.40), total stress (P=.27) and age (P=.45). The most important
independent variable in this model was students' age. Controlling for students' number of
similar courses taken and total stress, 21 year-old students have an average 0.85 points
higher score than 20 year-old students in Class E. The engagement scale used in this
study had a range of 24 to 96. The data suggests that students who are older have a higher
engagement score while controlling for students' stress and number of similar courses the
student had taken. However there was no indication that cognitive style gap significantly
explained students' engagement in Class E. The adjusted R2 of the model was .26
signifying that 26% of the variance was explained by the three variables. The model was
statistically significant (p<.05). See Table 4-82 for the unstandardized coefficient (B),
intercept (Constant), and standardized coefficient (0) determining student engagement of
Class E.