Table 4-41. All Student Mean Scores of Stress Constructs
Construct N Mean SD Min Max
Total stress 697 51.35 12.91 25 94
Frustrations 702 11.69 4.23 6 29
Conflicts 700 5.61 2.59 3 15
Pressures 702 10.31 3.57 4 20
Changes 702 4.68 2.43 3 15
Self-imposed 703 19.10 4.69 6 30
Note. Perceived stress was measured with the SSI using 22 summated items. Possible
range: Total (22 to 110), Frustrations (6-30), Conflicts (3-15), Pressures (4-20), Changes
(3-15), Self-imposed (6-30). Coded: higher score equals higher level of perceived stress.
motivation score and possible range of 6 to 48. The instrument uses 31, 7-point Likert
scale items. The least motivated student participating in the study had a total score of
12.60 while the most motivated student in the study scored 39.80 in determining total
motivation. Considering all participating students, the total mean motivation score was
30.81 (SD=4.04, n=706), which was 0.35 points higher than the norm reported by
Pintrich et al. (1991). Comparing constructs of the mean scores with norm values
(Pintrich et al.), motivation constructs of participating students varied positively and
negatively within one standard deviation of the norm construct value. Specifically
participating students reported the following construct mean scores with respect to values
reported by Pintrich et al.: intrinsic motivation was 0.44 points lower, extrinsic
motivation was 0.39 points higher, task value was 0.23 points lower, control of learning
was .02 points higher, self-efficacy was 0.41 points higher and test anxiety was 0.20
points higher. See Table 4-42 for findings specific to student stress of all participants.
For total student engagement there were 712 responses to the NSSE considered
usable for this study. Twenty-four items were used from the NSSE to measure total
student engagement. To complete the NSSE, students completed items using a 4-point
scale with one signifying low engagement and four signifying high engagement. The