Table 4-40. All Student Mean Scores of Cognitive Style Constructs (n=511)
Construct Mean SD Min Max
Total cognitive style 93.28 15.95 46 142
Sufficiency of originality 40.81 8.19 21 62
Efficiency 17.89 4.58 7 32
Rule/Group conformity 34.58 7.52 16 58
Note. Cognitive style measured by the KAI with 32 items. Theoretical range: Total (32-
160), Sufficiency of Originality (13-65), Efficiency (7-35) and Rule/Group Conformity
(12-60). Coded: lower score equals more adaptive, higher score equals more innovative.
There were 697 usable SSI scores in determining total perceived stress for all
participants. The SSI consisted of 22 summated 5-point Likert scale items coded as one
signifying low stress and five signifying high stress. The student with the lowest level of
perceived stress in this study scored 25 while the student with the highest level of
perceived stress scored 94 for total perceived stress. The total stress mean was 51.35
(SD=12.91), which was 18.74 points lower than the reported norm (Gadzella & Baloglu,
2001). Construct mean scores of student stress were also lower than the norm (Gadzella
& Baloglu): frustrations was 5.96 points lower, conflicts was 2.82 points lower, pressures
was 3.77 points lower, changes was 3.35 points lower and self-imposed was 2.72 points
lower. Note that one item was removed from the frustrations construct prior to data
collection, which was discussed in chapter 3. This modification affects the comparison
between norm values and the assessment of student stress in this study by lowering the
summated scale for the frustrations stress construct as well as the total stress score. Of the
constructs assessing student stress, all were more than one standard deviation lower than
norm values except for self-imposed stress. See Table 4-41 for findings of stress of all
participants of this study.
There were 706 usable MSLQ scores for determining student motivation of all
participants. The MSLQ consists of six standardized constructs summed to provide a total