higher than norms reported by Kirton. See Table 4-32 for results specific to student
cognitive style in Class H.
Table 4-32. Class H Student Mean Scores of Cognitive Style Constructs (n=50)
Construct Mean SD Min Max
Total cognitive style 95.30 15.01 67 135
Sufficiency of originality 41.24 8.65 22 60
Efficiency 18.64 3.75 10 27
Rule/Group conformity 35.42 7.04 19 51
Note. Cognitive style measured by the KAI with 32 items. Theoretical range: Total (32-
160), Sufficiency of Originality (13-65), Efficiency (7-35) and Rule/Group Conformity
(12-60). Coded: lower score equals more adaptive, higher score equals more innovative.
There were 70 students providing usable scores to determine stress in Class H.
Level of perceived stress was determined using the SSI, an instrument consisting of 22
items. Students responded to items with a 5-point Likert scale with one signifying low
stress and five signifying high stress. In Class H, the student with the lowest level of
perceived stress had a total score of 30 while the student with the highest level of
perceived stress scored 78. Class H had a total student perceived stress mean of M=50.73
(SD=11.54) which was 19.36 points lower than the total stress mean reported by Gadzella
and Baloglu (2001). Likewise, constructs of student stress had mean scores lower than
normalized values (Gadzella and Baloglu): frustrations was 5.85 points lower, conflicts
was 2.99 points lower, pressures was 4.29 points lower, changes was 3.61 points lower
and self-imposed was 2.55 points lower. Note that the frustrations stress construct had
one item removed prior to data collection which lowers the measured construct in the
study in comparison to the work conducted by Gadzella and Baloglu. Interestingly in
Class H, all stress construct mean scores were more than one standard deviation lower
than test norms (Gadzella and Baloglu) except for the construct self-imposed stress. See
Table 4-33 for Class H responses concerning student stress.