motivation had a total score of 12.60 while the student with the most amount of
motivation scored 39.15 for total motivation. For Class G, the total motivation score
mean was 30.01 (SD 4.27), which was 0.45 points lower than the total motivation norm
provided by Pintrich et al. (1991). In this class, three construct mean scores were lower
than the norm construct mean scores (Pintrich et al.): intrinsic motivation was 0.45 points
lower, task value was 0.43 points lower and control for learning was 0.28 points lower.
The remaining three constructs were higher than the norm construct mean scores
(Pintrich et al.) indicating slightly higher levels of motivation: extrinsic motivation was
0.07 points higher, self-efficacy was 0.51 points higher and test anxiety was 0.13 points
higher. All motivation construct score means were within one standard deviation from the
normalized values. See Table 4-30 for scale mean scores of Class G participants.
Table 4-30. Class G Student Mean Scores of Motivation Constructs (n=85)
Construct Mean SD Min Max
Total motivation 30.01 4.27 12.60 39.15
Intrinsic motivation 4.60 1.15 1.75 6.75
Extrinsic motivation 5.10 1.24 1.00 7.00
Task value 5.11 1.28 1.00 7.00
Control of learning 5.46 1.14 1.00 7.00
Self-efficacy 5.98 0.92 3.25 7.00
Test anxiety 3.76 1.39 1.00 6.80
Note. Motivation was measured with the MSLQ using 31 items with standardized
constructs. Possible range: Total motivation (6-48), all constructs (1-7). Coded: higher
score equals higher level of motivation.
There were 24 items used from the NSSE to determine level of student
engagement in Class G. Students responded to items using a 4-point scale with one
signifying low engagement and four signifying high engagement. The range for total
student engagement was 24 to 96. The least engaged student in Class G had a total score
of 34 points while the student with the highest level of engagement scored 79 on the
NSSE. For Class G, there were 85 usable response providing a total engagement mean