resulted in somewhat inconsistent participation, all data were considered valuable and are
considered in the analysis.
The second column in Table 2 presents the number of calques that each participant
employed in their writing, taken from the total number of translations that participants
completed. It is clear here that most participants finished only about half of 21 items. As
a result, the number of possible calques was reduced from 126 (21 items X 6 participants)
to 66. In order to compare these raw numbers, the next column converts each
participant's production to a percentage (number of items containing calques divided by
the number of items completed, then multiplied by 100). The resulting percentage can be
considered the participants' rate of calque production in the experimental tasks. Group I
as a whole produced a total of 21 calques out of 66 possibilities in the written exercise, a
rate of 32% calquing.
The results for the oral question/answer exercise were also impacted by the number
of exercises each participant was able to complete. These numbers are presented in the
fourth and fifth columns of Table 2, as raw numbers and percentages, respectively. In
this exercise, Group I produced a total of 18 calques out of 85 possible chances, for a rate
of 21%. We will see below that this was the smallest percentage of calque use of all three
groups.
Group II
Demographics
Participants in Group II include those who came to the United States after the age
of eleven but before the age of eighteen. Table 3 presents the relevant demographic
information for the participants in