previously mentioned, the bootstrapped means were very similar to the parametric means
calculated from the raw data, which suggests that the variation captured in this study is
probably a fairly accurate representation of the populations in question.
Another issue arising in this study may stem from the methodology used. Fractal
analysis has become a popular method for quantifying the complexity of intricate cranial
sutures. Long (1985) published one of the earliest works on fractals in biology when he
examined the sutures present on the shells of ammonites and the cranial sutures of
antlered deer. This study was also the first to describe how fractal elaboration is
important in the evolutionary process. Long and Long (1992), however, criticize the use
of fractal analysis on human cranial sutures because they feel that these particular sutures
are not self-similar and therefore are not fractals even though they yield a dimension
between 1 and 2. They state that some waveform curves may yield a dimension up to
1.2, but this is not sufficient to classify them as fractals. Using this reasoning, Long and
Long would probably say the sutures presented in this paper are not fractals. If this is
true, then this could be an explanation for why the two fractal analysis methods used here
do not show equivalence.
The problem with the above supposition is that these sutures do fit the definition of
a fractal, i.e. they are self-similar and have a dimension between 1 and 2. The main
critique of Long and Long (1992) is that the waveforms that possess a dimension above 1
are not self-similar. Studies conducted on human cranial sutures using the box dimension
have shown that human cranial sutures are self-similar through the use of logarithmic
plots. These graphs show the relationship of the logarithms of the number of squares
with length r occupied by the suture against the logarithm of 1/r. Benoit 1.3 provided the