occur for assumptions two, three, four, or five, then appropriate techniques were used to
control for this.
Social Physique Anxiety Scale
A 2(group: gymnast, nonathlete) x 2(time: preseason, in-season) repeated
measures analysis of variance (i.e., ANOVA) was conducted for the Social Physique
Anxiety Scale. The independent variables for this study were group (gymnast, nonathlete)
and time (preseason, in-season). The dependent variable was the social physique anxiety
score. Prior to conducting the analysis, the data were examined to ensure they met the
appropriate statistical assumptions. The assumptions for repeated measures ANOVA are:
1) observations are independent, 2) the population is normally distributed, 3) covariances
are equivalent, 4) variance is homogeneous, and 5) sphericity (i.e., the variances of
differences between any two measurements within a subject are constant; Grimm &
Yarnold, 1995). The first assumption is an experimental design error, and it was not
violated. If violations did occur for assumptions two, three, four, and five, appropriate
techniques to control for this were used.