Initialize outer-level
parallel particle
swarm optimization
f
Minimize outer-level
objective function (i.e.,
3D marker coordinate
errors for all time
frames of inner-level
optimization)
Adjust outer-level
design variables (i.e.,
model parameters)
False
Initialize inner-level
non-linear least
squares optimization
False
Minimize inner-level
objective function (i.e.,
3D marker coordinate
errors for current time
frame i)
Terminate inner-level
non-linear least
squares optimization
True
Terminate outer-level
parallel particle
swarm optimization
Figure 3-10. Two-level optimization approach minimizing the 3D marker coordinate
errors between the kinematic model markers and experimental marker data
to determine functional joint axes.