Joint Axes
Experiments Hip
Outer Optimization
Parallel Particle Swarm
Knee
Outer Optimization
SParallel Particle Swarm
izalion
squares
I II
nation
uares
2
Figure 3-8. Two-level optimization technique minimizing the 3D marker coordinate
errors between the kinematic model markers and experimental marker data to
determine functional joint axes for each lower-extremity joint.
Ankle Outer Optimization
-' Parallel Particle Swarm
Processor # 20 Inner Optimizalion
SNonlinear Least Squares
SProcessor # Opiz Inner Optimization L
SNonlinear Least Squares
Processor f 2 Inner Optimization /
T Nonlinear Least Squares
Processor # 1 Inner Optimization
Nonlinear Least Squares
V
Error Time j
Error Time J f /
a Error Time n/
Error Time #2
Frame #1
a
111