CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
An important part of computer control algorithms for open serial kinematic chains is the inverse kinematics section. In any robotic application, the' hand or endeffector of the robot may move along a trajectory specified as a sequence of points at which the end-effector pose (orientation and position) is known. While this trajectory
is specified in Cartesian coordinates, the motion of the robot is controlled through individual joint actuators that
produce the necessary rotation in revolute joints, or the translation in prismatic joints. The robot controller must,
therefore, be supplied the values of the joint variables corresponding to the end-effector pose, i.e., the
coordinates in joint space of the robot hand for each point along the trajectory must be computed. The conversion oftrajectory locations from Cartesian coordinates to joint coordinates is referred to as the inverse kinematics problem.
A desirable inverse kinematic algorithm is one capable of producing the joint coordinates in real-time. While the
robot hand is at, or approaching, one location along the trajectory, the algorithm must be able to produce the joint
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